I am not referring to the term “passive learning” as it is used in instructional design or educational theory. Rather, I am referring to the many claims on Japanese-learning message boards, blogs, and YouTube. The claim that by merely having Japanese music or dialogue playing in your vicinity, you are subliminally learning the language. The notion that an app alone can make you fluent.
I have spent hours listening to Japanese news, podcasts, television, movies and any other media. The times I spend actively listening to Japanese, I learn. The other times, when I am thinking about not burning my dinner, or trying to compose a legible email, I don’t magically learn Japanese. If that worked, I would be fluent, as I live and work in Japan and speak and hear Japanese almost all day. Brains don’t work like that.
Until I look up a word I hear it a few times, I am not able to do much with it: understand it, recall it, use it in conversation. The hundreds of hours I have spent with Japanese in the background, as I live my life, have amounted to negligible improvement in my comprehension or speaking.
Passive Learning is too good to be true. It’s “Eat whatever you want, and still lose weight!” that turns out to be, “…just don’t eat more than 3 ounces per meal” when you read the fine print. It’s at best, well-intentioned, but bad advice; at worst, it’s a snake oil pitch.
Use whatever apps you like. Watch anime, read manga. But do it actively: write, read, listen, shadow, talk to people, look up words you don’t know. Five minutes of active study is more useful than hours of pretending that passive listening is subconsciously being processed. And be skeptical of anyone proposing otherwise.